The penis is the male organ used for urination and sexual intercourse. The penis is located above the scrotum. It is made of spongy tissue and blood vessels.
The shaft of the penis surrounds the urethra and is connected to the pubic bone.
The foreskin covers the head (glans) of the penis. The foreskin is removed if the boy is circumcised. This is often done shortly after birth, but can be done later in life for various medical and religious reasons.
During puberty, the penis lengthens. The ability to ejaculate begins at around age 12 to 14. Ejaculation is the release of sperm-containing fluid from the penis during an orgasm.
Conditions of the penis include:
- Chordee -- downward curve of the penis
- Epispadias -- urethra opening is on the top of the penis, rather than the tip
- Hypospadias -- urethra opening is on the underside of the penis, rather than at the tip
- Palmatus or webbed penis -- penis is enclosed by the scrotum
- Peyronie's disease -- a curve during an erection
- Buried penis -- penis is hidden by a pad of fat
- Micropenis -- penis does not develop and is small
- Erectile dysfunction -- inability to achieve or maintain an erection
Other related topics include:
Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 559.
Epstein JI, Lotan TL. The lower urinary tract and male genital system. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 21.
Palmer LS, Palmer JS. Management of abnormalities of the external genitalia in boys. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 146.
Ro JY, Divatia MK, Kim K-R, Amin MB, Ayala AG. Penis and scrotum. In: Cheng L, MacLennan GT, Bostwick DG, eds. Urologic Surgical Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 15.
Reviewed By: Sovrin M. Shah, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Urology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.