References: Fitness Assessment
The Health Risk Assessments have been created by A.D.A.M. Inc. The assessment questions and their corresponding health messages are based on the following references and physician review:
Allen NB, Badon S, Greenlund KJ, Huffman M, Hong Y, Lloyd-Jones DM. The association between cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life and health status measures among U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2001-2010. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015;13:152. PMID:26396070 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396070.
American Heart Association website. American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults. Updated December 2017. https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/StartWalking/American-Heart-Association-Guidelines_UCM_307976_Article.jsp#.WCG3-dV97IU. Accessed July 13, 2018.
American Cancer Society website. Physical activity and the cancer patient. Updated March 24, 2014. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/survivorship-during-and-after-treatment/staying-active/physical-activity-and-the-cancer-patient.html. Accessed July 13, 2018.
Beavis AL, Smith AJ, Fader AN. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management. Int J Womens Health. 2016;8:151-167. PMID: 27284267 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27284267.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. How much physical activity do adults need? Updated June 4, 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adults/index.htm. Accessed July 13, 2018.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The benefits of physical activity. Updated February 13, 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/pa-health/index.htm. Accessed July 13, 2018.
Giangregorio LM, Macintyre NJ, Thabane L, Skidmore CJ, Papaioannou A. Exercise for improving outcomes after osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(1):CD008618. PMID: 23440829 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440829.
Jensen MD. Obesity. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 220.
Kush LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(1):30-67. PMID: 22237782 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237782.
Pronk NP, Remington PL; Community Preventive Services Task Force. Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs for Prevention of Diabetes: Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Sep 15;163(6):465-8. PMID: 26168073 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168073.
Riebe D, Franklin BA, Thompson PD, et al. Updating ACSM's Recommendations for Exercise Preparticipation Health Screening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Nov;47(11):2473-9. PMID: 26473759 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473759.
Shi Y, Li T, Wang Y, et al. Household physical activity and cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 7;5:14901. PMID: 26443426 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26443426.
Thompson PD, Baggish A. Exercise and sports cardiology. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, et al, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 53
US Preventive Services Task Force, Curry SJ, Krist AH, Owens DK, Barry MJ, Caughey AB, Davidson KW, Doubeni CA, Epling JW Jr, Kemper AR, Kubik M, Landefeld CS, Mangione CM, Silverstein M, Simon MA, Tseng CW, Wong JB. Screening for Cardiovascular Disease Risk With Electrocardiography: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2018 Jun 12;319(22):2308-2314. PMID: 29896632 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29896632.